Cotton Production 


Written by: Shaheer.S
Edited by: Colleen Haridass
Designed by: Shaheer.S
Published by: Maryam Khan


Do you ever wonder about all the wonderful things you have in life? What about all the colorful clothes you have and what they are made of or what is stuffed inside your comfy, beautiful, soft pillow you use at night to sleep on? 

 Well, it’s cotton.  

  • 75% of all clothes produced globally contain cotton
  • 75% of all furniture produced globally contains some amount of cotton 
  • Blue jeans are made with 100% cotton
  • 24% of all fiber and fabric used globally is made up of cotton

Cotton is used to make t-shirts, jeans, dresses, summer clothing, business and luxury clothing. It is also used in blankets, bedsheets, pillowcases, towels, bathrobes and much more. Cotton is also used for many medical purposes.  


History of cotton 


Cotton has a pretty unique history but we’ll sum it up quickly for you.  

Scientists studying caves in Mexico found old balls of cotton which are believed to be 7,000 years old.  

In 3000 B.C. (5,000 years ago) Egyptians were weaving and wearing cotton dresses and tops while cultivation of cotton was happening in the Indus River Valley in Pakistan.  

Around 800 A.D. (553 years ago) Arab traders introduced cotton fabric to Europe. By the year 1500, cotton was well known on a global scale.  

Today more than 250 million people receive money from cotton production and employ more than 7% of people in developing countries.  


Different types of cotton 


Cotton is grown and used all around the world but there are 4 main types of cotton.  

1. Gossypium Hirsutum 

Gossypium Hirsutum also known as upland cotton is used in 90% of the world’s production. In comparison to other cotton species, it has comparatively short but soft fibres.  

2. Gossypium Barbadense 

Gossypium Barbadense is a fabric known as Pima which is an extra long staple cotton. It is the second most produced cotton in the world. It has strong but very soft and stretchy fibres which resist ripping, wrinkling and hold together in place. It is commonly used for bedding appliances, towels and casual or fancy wear.   

3. Gossypium Arboreum 

Gossypium Arboreum is commonly known as tree cotton, providing less than 2% of global cotton population production. Tree cotton is used for medical purposes and making dresses.  

4. Gossypium Herbaceum 

Gossypium Herbaceum is primarily known as levant cotton which is a perennial shrub comprising less than 2% in the global market just like the tree cotton. This fabric is turned into yarn and many other different types of fabric.  


 Process of cotton fabric 


There are many steps to making cotton fabric and turning them into textiles and appliances for daily use.  

Here is the process. 

1. Defoliation 

A process where leaves are removed from cotton plants.  

 2. Harvesting 

When a harvesting machine gets rid of any chemicals in the plant and shapes it into cotton balls.  

 3. Separating 

Then a cotton gin machine takes out any additional particles of dirt and seeds in the cotton balls.  

 4. Transfer 

After that, the cotton is packed and driven off to a textile production factory. 

 5. Carding 

At the factory the cotton balls are pulled into long strings of yarn.  

 6. Spinning 

Than the long strands of cotton are spun into yarn. 

 7. Dying 

After the spinning, cotton is put through many chemical processes to make it more soft and comfortable and then is coloured.  

 8. Weaving 

The last step is the dyed yarn is turned into different textiles such as towels, blankets, t-shirts or jeans.  

 Last but not least, those textiles are sold at stores to consumers.  




Works Cited

Barnhardt Purified Cotton. (2019, September 30). Types of cotton. Barnhardt Purified Cotton. Retrieved August 28, 2022, from

Sewport. (n.d.). What is cotton fabric: Properties, how its made and where. Sewport. Retrieved August 28, 2022, from,of%20different%20types%20of%20products.

The story of cotton- history of Cotton. (n.d.). Retrieved August 28, 2022, from,the%20James%20River%20in%20Virginia.

The story of cotton- where Cotton Grows. (n.d.). Retrieved August 28, 2022, from,are%20Brazil%2C%20Pakistan%20and%20Turkey